Caroline Bennette, MPH, Ph.D., K12 Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Scholar, Group Health Research Institute, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
Caroline Bennette earned her doctorate from the University of Washington in Pharmaceutical Outcomes Research and Policy and her master’s in public health at Columbia University. Her research focuses on developing sophisticated statistical and decision analytic tools to help patients, providers and policymakers in the face of uncertain and complex decisions in oncology.
Steven E. Brenner, Ph.D., Professor, University of California, Berkeley
Steven E. Brenner is a Professor at the University of California, Berkeley, and also holds appointments at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and at the University of California, San Francisco. As an undergraduate, he studied in Walter Gilbert’s laboratory at Harvard College. He received his M.Phil. from the Department of Biochemistry at Cambridge University, and obtained a Ph.D. from the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Cambridge where he studied with Cyrus Chothia. After a brief visiting postdoctoral position at the National Institute of Bioscience in Japan, he undertook postdoctoral studies under the mentorship of Michael Levitt. Brenner’s research is primarily in the area of computational genomics, covering topics in protein structure, RNA regulation, function prediction, metagenomics, and individual genome interpretation. He is Founding Chair of the Computational Biology graduate program at Berkeley. He is currently a director of the Human Genome Variation Society, and is a founding editor of PLoS Computational Biology. He has served two terms as a director of the ISCB and was a founding director of the Open Bioinformatics Foundation. His recognitions including being a Miller Professor, a Sloan Research Fellow, a Searle Scholar, an AAAS Fellow and being named the recipient of ISCB’s Overton Prize.
Maximilian Diehn, M.D., Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Radiation Oncology, Stanford Cancer Institute, Institute for Stem Cell Biology & Regenerative Medicine, Stanford University
Maximilian Diehn, M.D., Ph.D., is an Assistant Professor of Radiation Oncology at Stanford University and has co-appointments in the Stanford Cancer Institute and Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine. He is a board-certified Radiation Oncologist and specializes in treatment of lung cancer. Dr. Diehn’s research programs span basic, translational and clinical studies. He has made significant contributions in a number of areas, including in cancer stem cell biology and cancer genomics, and his work has been recognized with numerous honors, including the NIH Director’s New Innovator Award. Dr. Diehn’s group recently developed a next-generation sequencing-based method for detection of circulating tumor DNA called CAPP-Seq. Further development and clinical application of this approach are major ongoing research efforts.
Kristen Fortney, Ph.D., Research Scientist, Stuart K. Kim Laboratory, Developmental Biology, Stanford University
Kristen Fortney is a postdoctoral fellow in Dr. Stuart K. Kim’s lab at Stanford University, where she works on the genetics of exceptional human longevity by analyzing GWAS and whole-genome sequencing data. She completed a Ph.D. in Bioinformatics at the University of Toronto in 2012. Her research interests lie in applying tools from computational biology to problems in translational medicine, with a focus on aging and age-related disease.
Malachi Griffith, Ph.D., Associate Director, The Genome Institute and Assistant Professor, Genetics, Washington University School of Medicine
Dr. Malachi Griffith is an Associate Director of The Genome Institute and an Assistant Professor in the Department of Genetics Bioinformatics. Dr. Griffith’s research is focused on the development of genomics, bioinformatics and statistical methods as they apply to the study of cancer biology and medicine. A particular focus of his work is in the translation of genomics data from whole-genome, exome and transcriptome sequencing into clinically actionable observations and personalized cancer therapies. Dr. Griffith has helped to create widely used public databases and resources such as www.dgdb.org and www.civicdb.org.
Eric Holland, M.D., Ph.D., Director, Solid Tumor Translational Research, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
Dr. Eric Holland earned a doctorate in biochemistry and molecular biology from the University of Chicago and a medical degree from Stanford University. He completed a neurosurgery residency at the University of California at Los Angeles School of Medicine and a fellowship at the National Cancer Institute in Bethesda, MD. His postdoctoral training included work with two Nobel laureates: Dr. Paul Berg, who pioneered recombinant DNA technology at Stanford, and Dr. Harold Varmus, director of the National Cancer Institute. Dr. Holland was recruited to Seattle from Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York, where he directed the Brain Tumor Center and built one of the nation’s most successful research and clinical programs. As a neurosurgeon and physician-scientist, he addresses the molecular basis of brain tumors to develop new, more precise approaches to their treatment. He specializes in glioblastoma, the most common brain cancer in adults, has developed mouse versions of brain cancer that mimic how tumors behave in humans, and has identified tumor cells that are resistant to standard therapies. These research findings have led to clinical trials for new drugs and drug combinations. At UW Medicine and the Hutch, Dr. Holland and his colleagues will help usher in an era of precision treatment for cancer patients. Dr. Holland has received the American Brain Tumor Association Research Award, among other honors. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies and a member of the editorial boards of Virology, Molecular Cancer Research, the Journal of Molecular Medicine and Neoplasia.
David Jackson, Ph.D., Chief Innovation Officer, Molecular Health
Bio coming soon.
Stephen F. Kingsmore, MB, ChB, BAO, D.Sc., FRCPath, Executive Director, Panomic Medicine, Children’s Mercy – Kansas City
Stephen F. Kingsmore is the Dee Lyons/Missouri Endowed Chair in Genomic Medicine at the University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, and Executive Director of Medical Panomics at Children’s Mercy – Kansas City, where he is building scalable methods for pediatric genomic/precision medicine. Previously, Dr. Kingsmore was the founding Director of the Center for Pediatric Genomic Medicine at CM-KC, CEO of the National Center for Genome Resources, COO of Molecular Staging, Inc., Vice President of Research at CuraGen Corporation, founder of GatorGen, and Assistant Professor at the University of Florida School of Medicine. Dr. Kingsmore received MB, ChB, BAO, and D.Sc. degrees from the Queen’s University of Belfast. He trained in clinical immunology in Northern Ireland and did residency in internal medicine and fellowship at Duke University Medical Center. He is a fellow of the Royal College of Pathologists. He was a MedScape Physician of the year in 2012, and received the 2013 Scripps Genomic Medicine award and ILCHUN prize of the Korean Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. TIME magazine ranked his rapid genome diagnosis method one of the top 10 medical breakthroughs of 2012.
Sek Won Kong, M.D, Assistant Professor, Medicine/Informatics Program, Harvard Medical School and Boston Children’s Hospital
Dr. Kong is an expert in computational genomics, with a special focus on clinical application of whole-genome sequencing in the context of precision medicine. He developed algorithms and tools for bioinformatics and translational research including biomarker discoveries for autism spectrum disorder and the other human diseases.
Adam Marsh, Ph.D., Professor, Center for Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, University of Delaware; CSO, Genome Profiling, LLC
Dr. Marsh is a faculty member in the Center for Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, and the School of Marine Science at the University of Delaware. His primary research efforts initially focused on epigenetics of environmental imprinting in animals living in extreme environments (polar seas, deep oceans) which lead to the development of a novel and robust software platform for quantifying and profiling DNA methylation from NGS data. This is now being applied to help researchers and clinicians discover epigenetic biomarkers for predicting diagnosing and improving therapeutic efficacy for patients with chronic and life threatening diseases. Dr. Marsh received his Ph.D. from the University of Maryland, College Park, and pursued postdoctoral research in cell biology (University of New Hampshire, Durham), molecular biology and invertebrate immunology (Center of Marine Biotechnology, University of Maryland, Baltimore), and molecular physiology (University of Southern California, Los Angeles). Across all phases of his career, computer programming, biostatistics and big data have played a large role in defining his research vision and goals.
John E. Mattison, M.D., Chief Medical Information Officer, Assistant Medical Director, Southern California Medical Group, Kaiser Permanente; Co-Chair, eHealth Workgroup, Global Alliance for Genomics and Health GA4GH
John Mattison, M.D., is the co-chair of the eHealth/Genomics/Phenomics workgroup of the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health (GA4GH). He is CMIO and Assistant Medical Director at Kaiser Permanente SCAL, where his team led the largest civilian deployment of an EHR in the U.S. and has been awarded numerous awards for that achievement. One of his other teams has pioneered the use of analytics and NLP for mining massive amounts of phenomic data. He is actively engaged in advancing the accelerating convergence of data and knowledge into space and time, aka “Inverted Big Bang of Big Data”. In addition to the multiomics, including genome/phenome/microbiome/socialome/exposome, John is active in architecting solutions to the data avalanche from wearable sensors and mobile apps to create a multiplatform ecosystem or “Plecosystem” to support a “Behavioral Symphony of Wellness” that enables person-centric approaches to achieving health and wellness. He has extensive experience in phenomic ontologies and is actively engaged in GA4GH to support international collaboration through open APIs and multiomic semantics, specifically between genomic and phenomic ontologies and datasets. Many of his previous talks can be found on YouTube and Vimeo. He has taught at many universities including Stanford, UCSD, UCLA, UCB and Singularity University where he is on the faculty of Exponential Medicine. He has published in a wide variety of journals, and a book chapter on genomics, privacy and reuse of health data, and has been quoted in the Wall Street Journal, Forbes, Modern Healthcare, Health Data Management, Mashable and others.
Mark Monane, M.D., Chief Medical Officer, CardioDx
Mark Monane joined CardioDx in 2011 as Chief Medical Officer. Prior to joining CardioDx, he served 11 years as managing director of equity research for Needham & Company, where he focused on analyses of emerging biotechnology companies in the cardiovascular and cancer disease areas. Prior to Needham & Company, Mark served as Senior Director of Medical Policy and Practices at Medco Health. Before joining Medco, he was an assistant professor at Harvard Medical School and the Harvard School of Public Health, where he completed fellowship training in geriatrics, clinical pharmacology and clinical effectiveness. Mark holds an AB and an MBA from Columbia University, an MS degree in health policy from Harvard University and an M.D. from New York University.
David W. Moskowitz, M.D., Chairman, CEO, CMO & CSO, GenoMed, Inc.
Dr. Moskowitz majored in Chemistry (summa cum laude) at Harvard College, Biochemistry (first class honors) at Merton College, Oxford, and received an M.D. (cum laude) from the Harvard-MIT Division in Health Sciences and Technology (Harvard Medical School). He trained for seven years in Internal Medicine, Biochemistry and Nephrology at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis before spending 11 years on the faculty of St. Louis University School of Medicine. Since 1994, Dr. Moskowitz has experienced firsthand the clinical effectiveness of knowing a disease-associated gene (the angiotensin converting enzyme, or ACE, gene). Dr. Moskowitz is a pioneer in the field of medical genomics, and has been recognized for his groundbreaking treatment of diseases associated with the angiotensin I-converting enzyme, such as chronic renal failure due to hypertension or Type II diabetes.
Dorothee Nickles, Ph.D., Computational Biologist, Genentech, Inc.
Dorothee Nickles works currently as a Computational Biologist at Genentech. Her work is focused on clinical research, in particular on the molecular characterization of immune signaling pathways in inflammatory diseases and cancer. Dr. Nickles performed her postdoctoral studies at University of California, San Francisco, in the labs of Sergio Baranzini and Jorge Oksenberg, after receiving her Ph.D. degree from University Heidelberg, Germany.
Bogdan Pasaniuc, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Pathology & Laboratory Medicine and Human Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles
Bogdan is primarily interested in statistical and computational methods for understanding genetic risk factors for common diseases with a particular focus in the study of admixed populations. Before joining UCLA, Bogdan was a Postdoctoral Research Fellow in the Program of Molecular and Genetic Epidemiology at the Departments of Epidemiology at Harvard School of Public Health and in the Program in Medical and Population Genetics at the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard in the group of Alkes Price. Prior to that, Bogdan completed a postdoctoral fellowship in the group of Eran Halperin at the International Computer Science Institute (Algorithms research group) in Berkeley, CA. Bogdan obtained his Ph.D. in Computer Science from the University of Connecticut working in the lab of Ion Mandoiu, and BSc from the Faculty of Computer Science, “A.I. Cuza” University of Iasi, Romania in 2003.
Nathaniel Pearson, Ph.D., Senior Director, Scientific Engagement & Public Outreach, New York Genome Center
Leading the New York Genome Center’s scientific engagement and public outreach, Nathan works with diverse partners to help sensibly gather and mine genomic and ancillary data. Through lab, computer and field work, he has long sought to cast light on how human genetic variation reflects key aspects of our health and history. Trained at Stanford, the University of Chicago and the University of Michigan, he served as Senior Director of Science and Research at Knome and as Principal Genome Scientist at QIAGEN, helping build and use software for interpreting genomes, in order to better understand diseases, drug response and other traits. And to seed broader scientific understanding, Nathan has also long worked with genome¬curious layfolk, including historian Henry Louis Gates, Jr. and singer Ozzy Osbourne. In this spirit, he founded the Empowered Genome Community, which helps citizen-scientists make their genomes scientifically useful, and Genomena.com, where he writes on the promise and challenges of the coming era of genomically informed living.
KT Pickard, MBA, Founder, StartCodon
K. Thomas Pickard (KT) is a marketing executive at Perceptive Software, a healthcare content management company. Previously he held roles at Emageon, eMed Technologies and Thinking Machines. In 2013, he founded StartCodon, a nonprofit promoting neurodiversity in biotechnology and life sciences. His work in personal genomics also includes research in consumer-directed health information sharing. KT has an MBA degree from St. Mary’s College of California.
Nathan D. Price, Ph.D., Associate Director, Institute for Systems Biology
Nathan Price is Associate Director of the Institute for Systems Biology in Seattle, WA. Dr. Price is the recipient of numerous awards including the Howard Temin Pathway to Independence Award in Cancer Research from the National Institutes of Health, a National Science Foundation CAREER Award, a Young Investigator Award from the Roy J. Carver Charitable Trust, and was named one of the inaugural “Tomorrow’s Principal Investigators” by Genome Technology and, most recently, as a Camille-Dreyfus Teacher-Scholar. Dr. Price served on the National Academies-Institute of Medicine committee to set best practice guidelines to identify Omics-based Tests for Predicting Patient Outcomes in Clinical Trials. He is also a member of the Board of Directors of the P4 Medicine Institute. He also serves on the editorial boards of Science Translational Medicine, IEEE Life Science Letters, BMC Systems Biology, Industrial Biotechnology and Biotechnology Journal, and was a Deputy Editor-in-Chief of PLOS Computational Biology from 2010-2014. Dr. Price served on the scientific advisory board of TetraVitae Bioscience until it was acquired by Eastman Chemical in 2011. He now serves on the Scientific Advisory Boards of Trelys, Inc. and the Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Biosustainability. Dr. Price is also Co-PI of ISB’s 100K Wellness Project, which is a pioneering effort to optimize wellness and predict and prevent disease before it happens.
Gabe Rudy, Vice President, Product & Engineering, Golden Helix
Gabe is a 13-year veteran at Golden Helix and spends his days collaborating with a diverse set of scientists and building solutions to enable their research. An alumnus of Montana State, he earned his Master’s in Computer Science from the University of Utah before setting his sights on the fast-changing field of genomics and bioinformatics. Gabe has been involved in developing various algorithms from copy number segmentation to runs of homozygosity and rare variant association testing. Gabe blogs about the genomics field from the perspective of someone building solutions and curating genomic annotations and public databases. His series, "A Hitchhiker’s Guide to Next Generation Sequencing", has become quite popular as a starter guide for those entering the field.
Weiva Sieh, M.D., Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Epidemiology, Department of Health Research and Policy, Stanford University School of Medicine
Weiva Sieh, M.D., Ph.D., is an Assistant Professor of Epidemiology at Stanford University. Her research focuses on understanding the genetic and environmental determinants of hormone-related cancers, including cancers of the breast, ovary and prostate.
Becky Swain, Entrepreneur & Founding Member, Cloud Security Alliance
Named a “Top Woman in Cloud” by CloudNOW in 2012 and 2013 along with industry security awards from (ISC)2 and Tech Exec Networks (T.E.N.), Ms. Swain has over 15 years of security and privacy experience as an accomplished cloud security thought leader, advisor and industry disruptor influenced by supply chain assurance standardization as co-founder of the Cloud Security Alliance’s Cloud Controls Matrix (CSA CCM) and Security, Trust & Assurance Registry (CSA STAR), exam developer for (ISC)2’s upcoming Certified Cloud Security Professional (CCSP) professional certification, and project co-editor of the recently published ISO/IEC 27036, supply chain information security, in support of her passion to promote further technology innovation powered by cloud services. Currently, Ms. Swain provides consulting services as a cloud security advisor. She is also co-founding a new cloud startup, Sublime-Mail, Inc., focused on email innovation and disruption to improve inbox management and productivity. Prior to consulting and Sublime-Mail, Ms. Swain was PwC’s lead Cloud Assurance Director, and prior to that, leading Cisco’s cloud assurance programs.
Katherine Tynan, Ph.D., Business Development & Strategic Consulting for Diagnostics Companies, Tynan Consulting LLC
Dr. Tynan is a seasoned biotechnology entrepreneur with a focus on product development, business planning and market entry strategies for clinical diagnostic companies. She has a background in evidence development, pricing, reimbursement and commercialization for a diversity of diagnostics ranging from whole-genome sequencing to point-of-care devices. In her current role as a consultant she works with a number of diagnostic companies and investors guiding them through product development choices, market entry strategies, funding ($21M raised) and a diverse range of business development transactions ($1M to >$600M). Prior to consulting, Dr. Tynan was at Vitra Bioscience (VP of Strategic Marketing), a venture-backed biotechnology tools company, where she managed a broad range of functional areas including marketing, business development, operations, finance, legal and IP, and participated in raising over $15M in capital. Previously, she worked at Applied Biosystems in strategic planning (including Celera and Celera Diagnostics), business development, research management and product development roles. Prior to Applied Biosystems, Katherine directed the Molecular Genetics Department for Oncogenetics / Datagenetics, a startup esoteric diagnostic services company (acquired by Impath and subsequently by Genzyme).
Laura J. van ’t Veer, Ph.D., Director, Applied Genomics and Angela and Shu Kai Chan Endowed Chair, Cancer Research, UCSF Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco
Dr. van ’t Veer is a world-renowned Molecular Biologist, Principal Investigator of the Athena Breast Health Network and Leader of the Breast Oncology Program in the Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center at the University California, San Francisco. Dr. van ’t Veer’s research focuses on personalized medicine, and aims to advance patient management based on knowledge of the genetic makeup of the tumor as well as the genetic makeup of the patient. She is the biomarker committee chair of the 22 hospital international trial I-SPY 2, working with scientists from academia, biotech and pharma to validate and develop new companion diagnostics for targeted oncological drug. Dr. van ‘t Veer led a groundbreaking study published in 2002, bringing together physicists, statisticians, computational scientists, medical oncologists, pathologists and biologists to apply the then-new microarray genome-wide gene expression technology to discover a 70-gene signature (MammaPrint) that can foretell outcome of disease for breast cancer patients. She then led multiple international studies showing the validity of this finding, resulting in its uptake in international treatment guidelines and daily clinical practice. In 2014 she received for this transdisciplinary work the European Union Woman Innovator Award second prize. Dr. van ‘t Veer is one of the PI’s for the NIH Big Data to Knowledge (BD2K) Center on Genomics, facilitating worldwide standardization of sharing annotated genomics data. This NIH BD2K Center, brings together Dr. David Haussler, University of California, Santa Cruz, Bioinformatics and Dr. David Patterson, University California, Berkeley, Computer Scientist, and the oncological clinical diagnostic team led by Dr. van ‘t Veer. She currently leads the Breast Oncology Program at UCSF, including 50 faculty ranging from basic scientists to clinicians, as well as the Athena Breast Health Network at UCSF implementing across the University of California Breast Screening Centers, a risk-based screening approach, including comprehensive germline genetic testing for breast cancer susceptibility.
George Vasmatzis, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Laboratory Medicine & Pathology, Mayo Clinic & Foundation
George Vasmatzis, Ph.D., is the co-director of the Biomarker Discovery Program within the Center for Individualized Medicine. In addition to earning a doctorate in biomedical engineering, Dr. Vasmatzis has acquired experience in diverse disciplines, including bioinformatics, molecular biology and computational biology. His research team consists of bioinformatics specialists, molecular biologists, epidemiologists and pathologists. Dr. Vasmatzis’s laboratory has demonstrated success in discovery and translation of several biomarkers as well as developing evidence-based models that should help clinicians stratify patients with cancer in order to provide each individual with the appropriate care. With the recent advances in next-generation sequencing technologies, the laboratory has become engaged in massive sequencing to scan the genome of cancer cells for abnormalities that can be used for clinical purposes such as diagnosis and stratification of patients for optimal treatment.
John S. Witte, Ph.D., Professor, Epidemiology & Biostatistics and Urology; Head, Division of Genetic and Cancer Epidemiology; Associate Director, Institute for Human Genetics; Co-Leader, Cancer Center Program in Cancer Genetics, University of California, San Francisco
John is Professor of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, and Urology, Head of the Division of Genetic and Cancer Epidemiology, Associate Director of the Institute for Human Genetics, and co-Leader of the Cancer Genetics Program at UCSF. He obtained a BS in Mathematical Sciences, an MS in Industrial Engineering and Operations Research, and a Ph.D. in Epidemiology (with Sander Greenland at UCLA). Before joining the faculty at UCSF in 2003, he did a postdoc in Biostatistics and spent eight years on the faculty at Case Western Reserve University. In addition to work, he enjoys spending time with his family and friends, outdoors and in the swimming pool!
Rina Wolf, Vice President, Commercialization Strategies, Consulting & Industry Affairs, XIFIN, Inc.
Rina Wolf is a nationally recognized expert in the field of laboratory commercialization and reimbursement, with over 20 years of experience in the diagnostic laboratory industry, specializing in Molecular Diagnostic Laboratories. She lectures extensively on these topics and has consulted for over 50 laboratories in the areas of commercialization, optimizing reimbursement and coverage, and compliance. Rina is an active participant and advocate in industry affairs. She is a member of relevant AMA workgroups, is a former President and board member of the California Clinical Laboratory Association and is an active participant with the ACLA (American Clinical Laboratory Association), AMA and the Personalized Medicine Coalition. Rina also advises and presents to investor audiences; recent speaking engagements include Piper Jaffray, Cowen Group, Macquarie and Bloomberg's G2 Intelligence Lab Investment Forum. Prior to joining XIFIN, Rina was responsible for creating and implementing successful reimbursement strategies with executive positions in the area of commercialization and reimbursement at RedPath Integrated Pathology, Inc., Genomic Health, Inc., and Esoterix (now LabCorp). Rina has a Bachelor of Arts degree from UCLA and a Masters of HealthCare Administration.
Noah A. Zaitlen, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Department of Medicine, Lung Biology Center, University of California, San Francisco
Bio coming soon.
Bill Zheng, Ph.D., Director, Bioinformatics Section, Institute of Genetic Engineering, Southern Medical University
Professor Zheng serves as Chair of Subchapter of Health Culture and Life Style (HCLS) of China Health Promotion Foundation (www.chpf.cn). He is also one of the board directors of the CHPF, managing health promotion technologies as well as international collaborations. CHPF is a non-government organization registered under the supervision of China Ministry of Health. Professor Zheng is managing a microarray lab in Southern Medical University, which is one of the first labs in China applying functional genomics in clinical studies.
Amin Zia, Ph.D., Senior Bioinformatician, Stanford Center for Genomics and Personalized Medicine, Stanford University
Amin is a Principal Bioinformatician at Stanford Center for Genomics and Personalized Medicine and is responsible for clinical bioinformatics for Stanford Clinical Genomics Service. Prior to joining SCGPM, Amin was postdoctoral researcher at Ontario Institute for Cancer Research (OICR) working on prostate cancer biomarker discovery. Prior to OICR, Amin was postdoctoral fellow at University of Toronto where he focused on annotations of genetic variations. Prior to his bioinformatics stint, he was a pukka Signal Processing engineer. He was (Sr.) R&D Engineer at Evertz Microsystems and Digital Rapids Corp working on video compression and codec technologies. He has a Ph.D. in Electrical and Computer Engineering from McMaster University, Canada.